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The EU-life project Recash produced 2006 an ambitious Handbook in English, Swedish and Finnish  about recycling wood ash to the forests . The Handbook and it´s slides are enclosed. At the website of the Swedish Forestry Agency you will find a lot more information in form of a Layman report, a technical report, educational material, case studies, wood ash to peatlands and proceedings from seminars in Prague 2005 and Karlstad 2006.

Link to: Swedish Forestry Agency website. Open folders educational material or case studies etc to find information.

An ecotoxicological approach for hazard identification of energy ash
S. Stiernström a, K. Hemström b, O. Wik b, G. Carlsson c, B.-E. Bengtsson a and M. Breitholtz a

a Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, Stockholm SE-106 91, Sweden
b Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linköping SE-581 93, Sweden
c Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala SE-750 07, Sweden

Received 28 January 2010; accepted 24 May 2010. Available online 2 July 2010.


Within the EU, ash should be classified by its inherent hazardous effects under criterion H-14 (ecotoxic) in the Directive on waste (2008/98/EC). Today, however, there are no harmonized quantitative criterions for such a classification, but it is stated that biological test systems can be used. In this study seven ash materials were leached and characterized, both biologically and chemically. The objectives were to evaluate if (a) clear concentration-response relationships could be achieved for the selected toxicity tests (bacteria, algae, crustacean and fish), (b) some test(s) are generally more sensitive and (c) the toxic responses were consistent with the chemical analyzes. Interestingly, our results indicate that high concentrations of non-hazardous components (Ca, K) influenced the toxicity of almost all ash eluates, whereas hazardous components (e.g. Zn, Pb) only influenced the toxicity of the eluates ranked as most hazardous. If considering both hazardous and non-hazardous substances, the observed toxic responses were relatively consistent with the chemical analyzes. Our results further showed that the (sub)chronic tests were much more sensitive than the acute tests. However, the use of extrapolation factors to compensate for using the less sensitive acute tests will likely lead to either over- or underestimations of toxicity. Our recommendation is therefore that classification of waste according to H-14 should be based on (sub)chronic test data. Finally, given that treatment of the eluates prior to toxicity testing has a major significance on the concentration and speciation of released substances, further studies are needed in order to propose a relevant testing scheme.


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Ashes contains salts as KCl.  Therefore brack water organisms as the shrimp Nitocra spinipes are very suitable for testing the eco toxicity of ashes

This figure shows Nitocra spinipes 6 different nauplii stages. An adult female with egg sack is shown in the figure under.



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